The Norwegian satellites AISSat-1 and AISSat-2 monitor maritime traffic in Norwegian and international waters by detecting AIS (Automatic Identification Signals) from ships to determine their position, speed and direction.
AISSat-1 was the first satellite to monitor AIS in real time from polar orbit.
The AIS-system is designed to prevent maritime collisions and all vessels with a gross tonnage larger than 300 tonnes are obliged by international maritime law to carry it.
The first AIS-satellite was launched on the 12th of July 2010 from India to a polar orbit, weighing only 6 kilogrammes and measuring 20 x 20 x 20 centimetres. The second, identical AIS-satellite was launched from Kazakhstan on the 8th of July 2014.
AISSat-1 was primarily intended to demonstrate space based AIS, but the satellite has been so successful that it has become a true work horse in orbit, performing like an operational satellite.
The planning of the satellite started in the spring of 2005 when the Norwegian Space Centre invited scientists to a workshop and call for proposals for a small satellite.
At the time, technological development had reached a point where even very small satellites could perform important tasks.
The Norwegian Defense Research Establishment (FFI) had previously carried out two project studies on small satellites, although none of these were realized. In addition, two Norwegian student satellites were underway.
Moreover, recent studies of the AIS signal frequency and its environment indicated that space based AIS was feasible, especially over polar regions.
Since both student satellites included an AIS transponder in their payloads, it was clear that these instruments could be made small enough to fit on a satellite.
Thus, FFI's proposal for an AIS-satellite was selected for further development.
Utilization of the polar regions
At the time Norwegian authorities were making plans to develop and utilize the northern regions further and the AISSat project became a part of these plans.
The satellite project was realized as a collaboration between three Norwegian governmental institutions; the Norwegian Space Centre, the Norwegian Coastal Administration and the Norwegian Defense Research Establishment (FFI), as well as two private companies; Kongsberg Seatex and Kongsberg Satellite Services (KSAT).
The satellite platform itself was purchased from Canada.
Today, the Norwegian Coastal Administration and other governmental institutions are using the data from AISat-1 for a variety of purposes, including monitoring fisheries, oil spills, and maritime traffic, to support anti-piracy operations along the coast of Africa, and other areas of interest to Norway.
AISSat-2 and 3 and Norsat-1
An AISat-1 copy, AISSat-2, was launched on the 8th of July 2014 from Baikonur in Kazakhstan.
The Norwegian Space Centre and the Norwegian Coastal Administration are also planning a third copy of AISSat-1, named AISSat-3, which will be a purely operational satellite.
Two larger satellites, Norsat-1 and Norsat-2, were launched in july 2017. Norsat-1 is carrying a next generation AIS transponder as well as scientific instruments.
These include a solar observatory developed in collaboration with ESA and Switzerland, and a space weather instrument developed by Norwegian researchers.
The Norwegian student satellites
In addition to the "official" satellites, several Norwegian student satellites have been developed.
The first two student satellites were CubeSatellites weighing less than 1 kilogramme. They unfortunately never reached orbit, but were nevertheless successful educational projects.
Currently, three student satellites are in development:
HiNCube has been developed by Narvik University College (HiN) and was launced in November 2013.
CubeStar is being built by the University of Oslo and will do scientific observations of the space weather that surrounds Earth.
The third student satellite is named NUTS and is built by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). This satellite will measure atmospheric waves.
In just a few years there may be as many as 5 or 6 Norwegian satellites in orbit, making Norway a true space nation.
The Norwegian telecommunications company Telenor has owned and operated satellites in geosynchronous orbit since the early 1990s.
These are the Thor satellites. Thor 7 was launched 19th April 2015. It provides standard commercial telecommunications services such as TV, radio, phone and internet connections to a host of international customers, as well as broadband internet to the Norwegian research station Troll in Queen Maud Land in Antarctica.
Infrastructure on the ground
Satellites are infrastructure in space and depend on ground stations and control centres on Earth.
Currently, only one ground station is being used for AISSat-1, but more are under consideration as the need for space based AIS increases.
Several of the educational institutions that are developing student satellites will have their own antennas and equipment to communicate with their satellite.
Telenor has satellite stations both in Norway and internationally for positioning, control, uplink and downlink for their communication satellites.